Organized crime, corruption and the movement of people across borders in the new enlarged EU: A case study of Estonia, Finland and the UK

This project investigated the problem of corruption by organized crime in relation to border controls and immigration using as a case study the Estonian and Russian border; particular attention was given to the issues concerning the ‘Development Plan of Border Guards’ and the planned cooperation in relation to Organized Crime and Combating Corruption.

Increasing the Awareness of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian public Servants and Journalists about Internal Audit and Political Corruption

The aim of the project was to develop the national integrity system of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by restraining corruption through the training of public servants and journalists. One part of the project was the dissemination of the principles of good governance and relevant information using Internet.

Increasing Transparency of the Democratically Elected Institutions by Educating the Members of these institutions

The primary aim of the project was to increase the know-how of the local government and public officials about corruption to intensify the anti-corruption fight. Three seminars dealing with different aspects of corruption were organized. The support group was formed to analyze the concept of corruption based on the legislation and work out the amendments to the relevant laws, to improve cooperation between different institutions and compose publication about corruption. In 2001 a collection of articles entitled “Korruptsiooni võimalikkusest avalikus sektoris”” was published.”

Raising Awareness of the Essence of Corruption and Strengthening the Fight Against it in Estonian Society

The aim of the project was to increase the interest of the public in the essence of corruption and to call the relevant state structures for closer cooperation. The researches on the situation of legislation dealing with corruption in the Republic of Estonia were implemented resulting in written analysis. A seminar and conference “Corruption in Estonia”” also took place.”

Research About Corruption Distribution in Estonia

The survey was carried out in December 2001. 1008 respondents were involved in research all over Estonia. The objective of this project was to investigate how people understand corruption in the society and the distribution of corruption, and also to compare how these changed in comparison to a previous survey conducted in 1998. Results indicated that respondents have quite an adequate understanding about corruption and corruptive behaviour. Accordin to the results, the biggest change occured among people who had some kind of contact with corruption – number of respondants who experienced corruption decreased. In 1998 the percentage of respondants with no personal contact with corruption was 69,4%, whereas in 2001 it was 83,5%. This decrease was identified especially in the category of people with occasional contact with corruption (17,7% in 1998 and 6,1% in 2001); the percentage of individuals with frequent contact with corruption remained largely the same.

Strengthening the Local Government System Integrity by training Public Servants

The aim of the project was to develop the national integrity system of Estonia by restraining corruption through the training of public servants and journalists. One part of the project was the dissemination of the principles of good governance and relevant information using Internet. Three 2-days seminars were organized for the officials of local governments.

Restricting Corruption in a Transition Society (Legal Aspects)

The goals of the projects were: to identify the most corruption-sensitive areas in Estonia; to find the most efficient legal means to restrict corruption; to offer solutions increasing the transparency of decision-making. The project identified and analysed legal aspects of restricting corruption. Other countries’ experience and its possible applications in Estonia were summarised in the course of the project.

Study: „Access to the Public Information in Estonia“

The aim of the study was to analyze access to public information in Estonia. The Public Information Act (2000) was analyzed by comparing it with the relevant legislation of other countries. Four hundred requests for information were sent out to various public institutions and the responses to the request were analyzed.

Development of Local Governments’ Public Internal Financial Control (PIFC) System

The objective of this project was to enhance the strategic management capacity of public administration at local government’s level and improve sound financial management of public funds.

The specific objective of the project was to introduce and develop the functionally independent internal control and audit systems in local governments of Estonia, in order to meet the EU requirements on PIFC.

Activities

Training (members of municipal councils and municipal administrations of large and medium-sized local governments to facilitate implementing internal audit functions) and analyzing and evaluating the existing legislation concerning PIFC in local governments.

Evaluation

 A questionnaire provided answers concerning the present establishment of internal audit within local governments. Amongst ca. 240 local governments 25 had been chosen by the Estonian authorities in a representative manner respecting different sizes of local governments, small, medium and large ones for example Tallinn, Tartu and Pärnu.

Corruption research 2004

The objective of this project was to map perceptions of corruption. The research sample was 1000 respondents. Among the findings: 68% of respondents sensed bribery as a usual phenomenon. Bribery is tolerated more by men. Respondents’ opinion was that the most corruption can be found in public administrations and private sector communication. In the opinion of the respondents the most corrupted areas are administrations, the police, the justice system and the customs.

Transparency Through Awareness

The aim of the project was to analyze the publication and transparency of the resources of EU structural funds and to achieve more transparency in the relevant decision-making process and the consultation with the civil organizations in these processes. A distinct part of the project dealt with the role of media in designing the aims of the project.

Curbing system leakages: the health sector and licensing in Estonia

The Baltics social audit measured the public’s perception of the social phenomenon of corruption and their concrete experience with corrupt practices in the health care and licensing sectors. Final sample was 3388 households, 7526 people. The goal was to help reduce system leakages that result from petty corruption and to suggest actionable steps to improve the situation in the health and licencing sectors.

Results

  • Licensing 91% of applicants paid for the licence/permit.
  • 8% of applicants gave unofficial payment or gift for licence/permit.
  • Mostly paid inspector or admin staff Rating of government health services and perception of corruption in the services – corruption high/v high – 33% and Corruption not high/v high – 38%
  • Suggestions for change to government health services – 39% willing to pay to have the change in government health services.
  • Suggestions for change to family doctor services – 31% willing to pay for the change in family doctor service.
  • Suggestions for change to specialist doctor services – 40% willing to pay for the change in specialist doctor services. 59% of households answered they would be willing to pay to avoid a waiting list for surgery or other hospital treatment.