The Impact of EU Conditionality on Corruption Control and Governance in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This paper seeks to evaluate the impact of EU policy and funds aimed at improving governance and controlling corruption in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It examines the interrelation between EU conditionality as expressed in different policy documents and the financial assistance provided by the EU. The focus is on the period 2007-13. It tracks the way in which the EU pursues democratic conditionality in BiH, and examines cases that are deemed successes as well as those deemed failures. It also considers how conditionality relating to the provision of EU funds is affected. It evaluates conditionality in the light of BiH’s anti-corruption performance during this period. The paper draws conclusions as to the effectiveness of EU policy and financial assistance in the area of anti-corruption, with a view to informing the ongoing policy debate on how to strengthen EU leverage in improving anti-corruption efforts in aspiring member-states, particularly in a post-conflict context.

Comparative country reports on institutional performance Countries: Bosnia, Kosovo, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, Russia, Tanzania, Turkey.

The report draws on ethnographic research undertaken in 8 countries object of investigation by the WP partners, namely: Italy, Hungary, Bosnia, Russia, Turkey, Kosovo, Tanzania and Mexico. In addition, an additional chapter (Annex 2) will render the case of Japan which will serve as a contrast case on which to assess ideas and practices of governance and institutional performance through an anthropological perspective. The report includes data gathered through a questionnaire survey undertaken, with minor differences, in all the eight countries included in WP4. The data analyzed comparatively refer to three main fields: perceived and experienced performance of local institutions, local problem and resolution ideas, socio- cultural norms and values. We have identified, following the anthropological literature, a number of cultural issues that are in relation with corruption, or with local citizens’ experiences of the functioning of public institutions in their countries. This first deliverable constitutes an attempt to draw some preliminary conclusions on the interaction between socio- cultural features and governance (both as experienced and perceived) which will be further and ethnographically explored in the final deliverable of this Working Package.

Institutional performance and social values in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This country report presents result of a survey about performance of local instiutions and social values” carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter BiH). It is a part of a wider research about corruption practices in this countryes approached with an innovative ethnographic metodology and “bottom-up persepctive”. Results of the survey will be here treated not as mere statistical data but analyzed and commented with data deriving from interviews and participant observation.

New Report Published on Anti-Corruption in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Center for the Study of Democracy (CSD) in Bulgaria has published the report “Countering Corruption in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001 – 2011”, which was presented to policy makers and stakeholders in Sarajevo at an anti-corruption policy forum on June 12, 2012. The forum is part of an effort by the European Union to empower the civil society in the country in its fight against corruption through exchange of experience with similar organizations in the region.

The report provides an overview of the state and dynamics of corruption and anti-corruption developments in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the aforementioned period. It builds on the local insight of the Center for Investigative Reporting (CIN) in Sarajevo and CSD’s 15 years of experience with regards to monitoring corruption and anti-corruption trends in Bulgaria. The findings are based on the Corruption Monitoring System (CMS), a state-of-the-art tool developed by CSD for monitoring the dynamics of corruption at the national level. This methodology measures not only attitudes and perceptions of corruption, but also actual experiences (i.e. victimization) of citizens. At the forum, CSD’s Program Director Mr. Ruslan Stefanov highlighted that CSD and CIN complemented each other’s efforts as CMS captures the administrative corruption while investigative reporting helps catch political (large scale) corruption.

According to the report’s findings, during the past 10 years corruption pressure in Bosnia and Herzegovina has increased, while the actual participation of citizens in corrupt activities has subsided. It is, however, worrying that despite their reduced encounters with corruption, citizens perceive the phenomenon as ever more widespread and their trust in state institutions to fight corruption is fading. According to Mr. Stefanov, while eradicating corruption is a historically slow process, it is of paramount importance that the justice system restores citizens’ trust in the institution through punishing corruption at the highest level.

Additional information on the Anti-Corruption Policy Forum can be found at csd.bg.

Local Community Strengthening in the Municipality of Goražde

The basic objective of the project is to give support to direct and indirect beneficiaries in increasing their technical and institutional capacities for more effective inclusion in major decision-making processes at local level as well as for the establishment of inter-sectoral cooperation in areas of common interest and responsibility. The basic strategy of the project for achieving these goals was a program of education (training) and technical assistance that is designed based on previously established real needs for additional training of project beneficiaries in certain areas of their regular activities (competency, mission).
The project is designed so that its main (direct) beneficiaries have the chance not only to acquire new knowledge and skills on selected topics, but also to provide opportunity for new knowledge to be practically applied through participation in concrete actions and activities related to the establishment of inter- sectoral cooperation and participation of citizens in the budget process.
Thanks to CPCD project activities and constant encouragement of local communities, NGOs, business associations, municipal departments to gather themselves first and then work together, a new atmosphere was created in relations between these sectors. Cooperation has been accepted as the benefits that brings new challenges and successes to everyone, as a process in which all of them work together for the general welfare.

National Integrity System

The project sought to:
– Undertake a survey regarding the basic state pillars and bring recommendations how to reduce corruption in this institutions;
– Publish the survey in National Integrity System Study in English language;
– Promote results of National Integrity System Study through mass media;
– Stimulate broader public discussion on anti-corruption issues;
– Strength the rule of the law;
– Improve accountability and transparency of the public sector.
Activites of the project included:
– Investigation of the corruption phenomenon on the ground i.e. in 11 basic state pillars (Government, Parliament, Judiciary, Prosecutors, Police,);
– Printing of the National Integrity System Study;
– Media presentation;
– Distribution of the Study.

Public Policies Monitoring

The basic objective of the project was to reach the positive changes in quality of life in Sarajevo Canton by increased involvement of citizens, and by organized and articulated action of the civil society organizations in process of authorities monitoring, analyzing their previous work as well as advocacy actions for alternative measures in seven areas of public policy. These areas are: transparent spending of budget funds, health care, education, employment and professional retraining, care for old and ill, management of contributions and restricted funds and information services at local level. Particular importance of this project realization was the fact that not only monitoring and criticism of the authority were performed in Sarajevo Canton, but alternative measures for public policy have been offered and defined possible directions of future actions by governments that would led to positive changes in quality of life in Sarajevo Canton. The project was realized in cooperation with the Center for Policy Research and Development.

National Integrity System 2004

The project sought to:
– Undertake a survey regarding the basic state pillars and bring recommendations how to reduce corruption in this institutions;
– Publish the survey in National Integrity System Study in English language;
– Promote results of National Integrity System Study through mass media;
– Stimulate broader public discussion on anti-corruption issues;
– Strength the rule of the law;
– Improve accountability and transparency of the public sector.
Activites of the project included:
– Investigation of the corruption phenomenon on the ground i.e. in 11 basic state pillars (Government, Parliament, Judiciary, Prosecutors, Police,);
– Printing of the National Integrity System Study;
– Media presentation;
– Distribution of the Study.

Public Policy Program “Strengthening of Civic Activism in Bosnia & Herzegovina in Electoral and Post-Electoral Processes”””

The basic goal of this project was to build and promote an efficient, transparent and participative process of creating and implementing public policy in BiH through organized action and citizens’ and CSOs advocacy, with the purpose of building a political responsible and consistent authority at all levels of BiH society. During three-years period, planned project activities were implemented in a total of 36 local communities in both of BiH entities. In 2008, project activities were implemented in 15 municipalities in cooperation with local organizations: Velika Kladuša, Donji Vakuf, Trebinje, Rudo, Vlasenica, Modriča, Kalinovik, Bihać, Livno, Bugojno, Goražde, Tuzla, Sarajevo and Doboj.

Promoting Transparency and Accountability

The Accountability Project was implemented as part of TI BiH’s overall programme activities within AC DC programme (Anti-corruption Delivery Change).
The AC DC programme includes components such as analysis and monitoring of public institutions (at the state and entity levels), advocacy and promotion of anti-corruption reforms on the basis of the problems identified through analysis and monitoring, and provision of expert support to institutions with the aim of implementing anti-corruption reforms.
The Accountability Project will focus particularly on strengthening the enforcement mechanisms for the conflict of interest law through monitoring and analysis of implementation of the law and functioning of the institutions responsible for implementing the law, on the basis of which priorities will be identified for advocating and promoting necessary reforms aimed at strengthening law enforcement mechanisms.

Creation of the strategy for development of local selfgovernment of Bosnia&Herzegovina with the involvement of the crucial stakeholders

The main objectives of the project were: (1) to introduce the question of local governence and decentralisation as the priority in the process of reforms in BIH; (2) creation of the leading nucleus of crucial national stakeholders (from pubic administration, NGOs, other leading practitioners and experts in the field of good governance) as a driving force for the creation and implementation of the strategy; (3) creation of the integral, systematically established and generally accepted strategy for development of local government in BIH; (4) establishement of new qualitative approach for the policy and practice for the creation of solutions for local level in BIH (bottom-up instead top-down).

Crime and Corruption Reporting Project

The goal is to help the people of the region better understand how organized crime and corruption affect their lives.

OCCRP seeks to provide in-depth investigative stories as well as the latest news pertaining to organized crime and corruption activities in the region. In addition to the stories, OCCRP is building an online resource center of documents related to organized crime including court records, laws, reports, studies, company records and other public documents that will be an invaluable resource center for journalists and the public alike.

The OCCRP project has been, or is, supported by grants from the United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Open Society Foundations. Also on this site are projects funded in part or done in partnership with other organizations including SCOOP, the Center for Public Integrity (CPI) and the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ).

OCCRP is a registered name of the Journalism Development Network, a Maryland-based charitable organization (501(c)3).

Source: OCCRP

Development and introduction of multiple models of self-government units in Bosnia&Herzegovina

The objective of the project was the creation of a new basic model of local self-governance in BIH through the introduciton of multiple structure with different jurisdiction and with differential legal status of local units in order to create enough flexible basis for the functional and fiscal decentralisation of BIH.

Training on Investigative Journalism in Corruption Issues

This project successfully determined the trouble spots in BiH investigative journalism related to corruption issues. The impact was to raise awareness and locate the areas where corruption is most widespread. That is of direct benefit for the journalist as well as the general efforts to combat corruption in BIH. A pool of experts (Eva Vajda, Igor Gajic, Claudio Weber Abramo and other lectureres) provided a very effective training, which helped BiH journalists to more effectively deal with problems such as: identifying corruption, locating the information (official and alternative sources), source investigation and source protection, legal corridors for investigative journalists and prosecution of journalist. Positive aspects were establishing of country-wide co-operation among journalist and between journalist and TI BiH, almost as an informal network.

Regional support for the realization of the strategy for local self-governance

The goal of this bilateral project (between BIH and Serbia) was to (1) analyze the importance of decentralisation, especially the fiscal decentralisaton, governance, good quality management in local adminsitration, vertical and horizontal relations between local and other level of governance, as well as to analyze the level of cooperation betweeen local communities – after this analysis the goal was to (2) prepare and distribute the publication on good practices, challenges and experiences and to promote alternative steps towards decentralisation in BIH and Serbia.

Transparency Training

The project intended to support of the Global Impact Initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina through trainings given to business sector with topic of anti-corruption. The project methodology helped the businesses to create a climate of no tolerance for corruption. Ideally, after the training each company should be able to create and implement its own Business Principles for Countering Bribery, with the content tailored to its organization and scope of activities.
Neither trainings in Sarajevo and Banja Luka exceeded more than thirty participants in order to maintain active participation and discussion.
The content of the trainings covers the following topics:
– Definitions, forms and consequences of corruption;
– Law on free access to information;
– Conflict of interest Law;
– Law on public procurement and TI Integrity Pact.
During each session participants had the opportunity to ask questions and openly discuss about their own experiences. This approach was strongly stimulated.
For each session TI BiH delivered appropriate training materials consist of laws, summary presentations, model Code of Conduct for business sector, model TI Integrity Pact, etc. Also, TI BiH will be at disposal to continue cooperation and provide concrete assistance in companies’ future work on business principles that promote transparency, accountability and anti-corruption.

Accountability Program in the Western Balkans I

The TI Accountability Programme addresses the existing deficiencies in governments accountability in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia by proposing remedies in two key areas of good governance, which are currently insufficiently regulated:
– Conflict of interest of public officials
– Free access to information
The programme also aims at involving civil society in actively promoting and monitoring the above mentioned laws.
These goals are be reached by:
– Raising public awareness;
– Strengthening civil society in the region;
– Enhancing higher level of media professionalism;
– Reducing opportunities for conflict of interest of public officials;
– Ensuring free access to information for citizens.
The three-year programme is being implemented by the TI National Chapters in the respective countries and coordinated by he TI International Secretariat.

The project includes the following activities:
– Assessment of the existing legislation
– Improvement of the Laws
– Public awareness raising
– Training of journalists and CSOs representatives
– Training of public officials
– Monitoring the implementation of the Laws

Accountability Program in the Western Balkans II

This regional programme for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Serbia aims strenghting implementation Access to Information law. The programme also aims at involving civil society in actively promoting and monitoring law.
Project goals:
– To improve the quality of Access to Information laws;
– To monitor and encourage harmonization with European standards;
– To maintain popular and media support for anti-corruption initiatives;
– To generate a body of knowledge on Access to Information for use in the region and beyond.
The one-year project was implemented by the TI National Chapters in the respective countries and coordinated by he TI International Secretariat.

The project included the following activities:
– Improving legal standards;
– Testing effectiveness of laws/analysis of obstacles to implementation;
– Assisting users of the law;
– Improving government capacity to implement laws;
– Exploring development of legal cases (e.g. preparation of pilot cases to challenge implementation of FOIA laws, or provisions of information to those preparing cases).

Advocacy and Legal Advice Centers

Goals of the project:
Provide the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina with an effective instrument for combating corruption in their everyday lives;
Provides citizens with free legal advice for reporting complaints of suspected corruption of public officials, or where the citizen is a victim or has knowledge of corrupt practices;
Makes information on citizens’ rights easily available and accessible to the public;
Raises citizen’s awareness of their rights and possibilities to take actions against corruption;
Opens a dialogue with the national institutions to support the establishment of appropriate mechanisms for citizens’ complaints in order to systemize and organize fight against corruption;
Monitor the work of responsible public institutions during processing of cases of corruption.
PROJECT ACTIVITIES:
Case studies of citizen’s complaints against corruption, using statistics and qualitative examples (who complains about what, which agencies were involved, which authorities were most vigilant in pursuing corruption, etc.);
Monthly press releases and reports to the public;
“Should I complain?” an ethical brochure for citizens about why individual action is important for combating corruption;
Training manual for government agencies on dealing with citizen’s complaints and obligations under freedom of information and conflict of interest;
Cooperation with journalists and radio and TV broadcasters on small programs about corruption cases.