The Impact of EU Conditionality on Corruption Control and Governance in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This paper seeks to evaluate the impact of EU policy and funds aimed at improving governance and controlling corruption in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It examines the interrelation between EU conditionality as expressed in different policy documents and the financial assistance provided by the EU. The focus is on the period 2007-13. It tracks the way in which the EU pursues democratic conditionality in BiH, and examines cases that are deemed successes as well as those deemed failures. It also considers how conditionality relating to the provision of EU funds is affected. It evaluates conditionality in the light of BiH’s anti-corruption performance during this period. The paper draws conclusions as to the effectiveness of EU policy and financial assistance in the area of anti-corruption, with a view to informing the ongoing policy debate on how to strengthen EU leverage in improving anti-corruption efforts in aspiring member-states, particularly in a post-conflict context.

Comparative country reports on institutional performance Countries: Bosnia, Kosovo, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, Russia, Tanzania, Turkey.

The report draws on ethnographic research undertaken in 8 countries object of investigation by the WP partners, namely: Italy, Hungary, Bosnia, Russia, Turkey, Kosovo, Tanzania and Mexico. In addition, an additional chapter (Annex 2) will render the case of Japan which will serve as a contrast case on which to assess ideas and practices of governance and institutional performance through an anthropological perspective. The report includes data gathered through a questionnaire survey undertaken, with minor differences, in all the eight countries included in WP4. The data analyzed comparatively refer to three main fields: perceived and experienced performance of local institutions, local problem and resolution ideas, socio- cultural norms and values. We have identified, following the anthropological literature, a number of cultural issues that are in relation with corruption, or with local citizens’ experiences of the functioning of public institutions in their countries. This first deliverable constitutes an attempt to draw some preliminary conclusions on the interaction between socio- cultural features and governance (both as experienced and perceived) which will be further and ethnographically explored in the final deliverable of this Working Package.

Institutional performance and social values in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This country report presents result of a survey about performance of local instiutions and social values” carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter BiH). It is a part of a wider research about corruption practices in this countryes approached with an innovative ethnographic metodology and “bottom-up persepctive”. Results of the survey will be here treated not as mere statistical data but analyzed and commented with data deriving from interviews and participant observation.

New Report Published on Anti-Corruption in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Center for the Study of Democracy (CSD) in Bulgaria has published the report “Countering Corruption in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2001 – 2011”, which was presented to policy makers and stakeholders in Sarajevo at an anti-corruption policy forum on June 12, 2012. The forum is part of an effort by the European Union to empower the civil society in the country in its fight against corruption through exchange of experience with similar organizations in the region.

The report provides an overview of the state and dynamics of corruption and anti-corruption developments in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the aforementioned period. It builds on the local insight of the Center for Investigative Reporting (CIN) in Sarajevo and CSD’s 15 years of experience with regards to monitoring corruption and anti-corruption trends in Bulgaria. The findings are based on the Corruption Monitoring System (CMS), a state-of-the-art tool developed by CSD for monitoring the dynamics of corruption at the national level. This methodology measures not only attitudes and perceptions of corruption, but also actual experiences (i.e. victimization) of citizens. At the forum, CSD’s Program Director Mr. Ruslan Stefanov highlighted that CSD and CIN complemented each other’s efforts as CMS captures the administrative corruption while investigative reporting helps catch political (large scale) corruption.

According to the report’s findings, during the past 10 years corruption pressure in Bosnia and Herzegovina has increased, while the actual participation of citizens in corrupt activities has subsided. It is, however, worrying that despite their reduced encounters with corruption, citizens perceive the phenomenon as ever more widespread and their trust in state institutions to fight corruption is fading. According to Mr. Stefanov, while eradicating corruption is a historically slow process, it is of paramount importance that the justice system restores citizens’ trust in the institution through punishing corruption at the highest level.

Additional information on the Anti-Corruption Policy Forum can be found at csd.bg.

Promoting Transparency and Accountability

The Accountability Project was implemented as part of TI BiH’s overall programme activities within AC DC programme (Anti-corruption Delivery Change).
The AC DC programme includes components such as analysis and monitoring of public institutions (at the state and entity levels), advocacy and promotion of anti-corruption reforms on the basis of the problems identified through analysis and monitoring, and provision of expert support to institutions with the aim of implementing anti-corruption reforms.
The Accountability Project will focus particularly on strengthening the enforcement mechanisms for the conflict of interest law through monitoring and analysis of implementation of the law and functioning of the institutions responsible for implementing the law, on the basis of which priorities will be identified for advocating and promoting necessary reforms aimed at strengthening law enforcement mechanisms.

National Integrity System 2004

The project sought to:
– Undertake a survey regarding the basic state pillars and bring recommendations how to reduce corruption in this institutions;
– Publish the survey in National Integrity System Study in English language;
– Promote results of National Integrity System Study through mass media;
– Stimulate broader public discussion on anti-corruption issues;
– Strength the rule of the law;
– Improve accountability and transparency of the public sector.
Activites of the project included:
– Investigation of the corruption phenomenon on the ground i.e. in 11 basic state pillars (Government, Parliament, Judiciary, Prosecutors, Police,);
– Printing of the National Integrity System Study;
– Media presentation;
– Distribution of the Study.

Training on Investigative Journalism in Corruption Issues

This project successfully determined the trouble spots in BiH investigative journalism related to corruption issues. The impact was to raise awareness and locate the areas where corruption is most widespread. That is of direct benefit for the journalist as well as the general efforts to combat corruption in BIH. A pool of experts (Eva Vajda, Igor Gajic, Claudio Weber Abramo and other lectureres) provided a very effective training, which helped BiH journalists to more effectively deal with problems such as: identifying corruption, locating the information (official and alternative sources), source investigation and source protection, legal corridors for investigative journalists and prosecution of journalist. Positive aspects were establishing of country-wide co-operation among journalist and between journalist and TI BiH, almost as an informal network.

Transparency Training

The project intended to support of the Global Impact Initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina through trainings given to business sector with topic of anti-corruption. The project methodology helped the businesses to create a climate of no tolerance for corruption. Ideally, after the training each company should be able to create and implement its own Business Principles for Countering Bribery, with the content tailored to its organization and scope of activities.
Neither trainings in Sarajevo and Banja Luka exceeded more than thirty participants in order to maintain active participation and discussion.
The content of the trainings covers the following topics:
– Definitions, forms and consequences of corruption;
– Law on free access to information;
– Conflict of interest Law;
– Law on public procurement and TI Integrity Pact.
During each session participants had the opportunity to ask questions and openly discuss about their own experiences. This approach was strongly stimulated.
For each session TI BiH delivered appropriate training materials consist of laws, summary presentations, model Code of Conduct for business sector, model TI Integrity Pact, etc. Also, TI BiH will be at disposal to continue cooperation and provide concrete assistance in companies’ future work on business principles that promote transparency, accountability and anti-corruption.

Crime and Corruption Reporting Project

The goal is to help the people of the region better understand how organized crime and corruption affect their lives.

OCCRP seeks to provide in-depth investigative stories as well as the latest news pertaining to organized crime and corruption activities in the region. In addition to the stories, OCCRP is building an online resource center of documents related to organized crime including court records, laws, reports, studies, company records and other public documents that will be an invaluable resource center for journalists and the public alike.

The OCCRP project has been, or is, supported by grants from the United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Open Society Foundations. Also on this site are projects funded in part or done in partnership with other organizations including SCOOP, the Center for Public Integrity (CPI) and the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ).

OCCRP is a registered name of the Journalism Development Network, a Maryland-based charitable organization (501(c)3).

Source: OCCRP

Accountability Program in the Western Balkans I

The TI Accountability Programme addresses the existing deficiencies in governments accountability in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia by proposing remedies in two key areas of good governance, which are currently insufficiently regulated:
– Conflict of interest of public officials
– Free access to information
The programme also aims at involving civil society in actively promoting and monitoring the above mentioned laws.
These goals are be reached by:
– Raising public awareness;
– Strengthening civil society in the region;
– Enhancing higher level of media professionalism;
– Reducing opportunities for conflict of interest of public officials;
– Ensuring free access to information for citizens.
The three-year programme is being implemented by the TI National Chapters in the respective countries and coordinated by he TI International Secretariat.

The project includes the following activities:
– Assessment of the existing legislation
– Improvement of the Laws
– Public awareness raising
– Training of journalists and CSOs representatives
– Training of public officials
– Monitoring the implementation of the Laws

Research project: the participation of citizens in decision-making in 2009

The project goal was to analyze the perception and experiences of citizens and public officials regarding the participation of the citizens in decision-maiking. Finnally the CCI marks the progress in the influence of the citizens on decision making. The approch used for this analysis was the study of legal framework for the participation of citizens in decision-making and the research on the perception of citizens about their participation in decision-making.

Research project: monitoring of public expenditure and analysis of public auditing

This research project was focused on the monitroing of public sector, more precisely on poblic sector expenditure. This research was analyzing the organisational capacitites of public auditing agencies on the national and canton level, their efficiency, acting of audited subjects, the efficiency of prosecutor’s office and parlaments in regard to the auditing agecies reports. This research was focused also on the recommendations of public saving and unpaid claims in the public sector. One of the main activities in this project was the submission of the criminal charges against the responsible officers from the public tax offices as they didn’t assure the tax payment of millions of marks because they were corrupted. Other activitites (on voluntry basis) and in relation to this topic were focused on the (1)analysis and investigation of institutional efficiency in fight against organized crime and economic crime, mafia in building/construction sector and local governement officials’ abuse of powers (2) submisson of more than 30 criminal charges for organised crime, non legal construction activitites, war crimes, several millions of dammage (3) submission of 20 criminal charges in relation to the work of judges and state prosectuors (4) presentaiton of more than 10 solutions of identifed problems to the institutions in charge (5) submission of the propositon for the evaluation of the decision of the municipality which legalised the construction projects which were aginst the law (6) vivisbility activitites in relation to the above mentioned activitites

Elections before Elections

The aim of the project: To train citizens and civil society organizations to carry out evaluation of the results of elected representatives work and currently ruling local authorities in selected municipalities, and based on that enable the citizens to make decisions at local elections which is scheduled in October 2008.
The primary purpose of the project is to deepen the positive influences that GROZD campaign made resulted in changing attitudes and behaviors of citizens and organizations of civil society in terms of need for their greater involvement in overall political and social processes in community and society in 2006 and 2007 and to make elected representatives most responsible for the problems citizens face with at the local level.
Direct project beneficiaries were the citizens gathered in local GROZD organizations in 30 selected local communities (Goražde, Rudo, Foca, Doboj, Livno, Tomislavgrad, G. Vakuf, Jablanica, B. Petrovac, B. Krupa, Prijedor, Jajce, Ključ, Velika Kladuša, Trebinje, Gacko, Kalesija, Travnik, Konjic, Visoko, Kakanj, N.Grad-Sarajevo, Bugojno, Sekovici, Zavidovici, Breza, Ilidza, Kalinovik, Modriča and D. Vakuf), as well as representatives of other NGOs, local formal and non-formal organizations and citizens groups which are interested in. During the year, 30 advocacy campaigns were organized, including informative and media campaign (project and goals were presented by 8 radio stations in Bosnia-Herzegovina) with aim to organize a pressure on candidates forcing them to include a way of solving key problems of citizens in their political program under local agenda.

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